Automobile dependence is
a global phenomenon in modern societies,
even for short trip distances.

Almost 50% of trips made in automobiles in Europe
cover distances less than five kilometres.

This despite the fact that commuting to work/ school by car
has been shown as positively associated with weight gain and obesity due to its contribution to a sedentary lifestyle.

Hence, the progressive substitution of private motor vehicles
to active forms of transport for everyday commuting
has become increasingly the focus of current urban transport and public health policies.

Commuting actively by bicycle provides
improvements in cardio-respiratory fitness
and decreases the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors
by intensifying the daily amount of cycling.

Public bicycle-sharing programs have been presented as
one means to address concerns of automobile dependency cultures due to their population-level promotion of regular physical activity.

Such systems can also reduce automobile use and ownership,
although in European cities vehicle trips replaced
by bicycle sharing may not exceed 10%.